Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the lipid and the antioxidant regulatory potential of a multigrain diet in laboratory animals with reference to lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status.
Methods: Two types of diets, with or without addition of cholesterol, were used in the study - a commercial diet and a formulated multigrain diet (with Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays grains). After a 10-week period of feeding the diets to albino rats the plasma, liver and fecal lipid profiles and the hepatic and renal antioxidant status of the animals that were fed the commercial and the formulated diets (with and without cholesterol addition) were assessed.
Results: The commercial diet supplemented with cholesterol elevated the levels of plasma total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), as well as the atherogenic index (AI). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) content and the antioxidant profiles (total ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase reduced glutathione) declined along with increases in lipid peroxidation. The formulated diet (with and without addition of cholesterol) was found to be more efficient than the commercial diet in controlling plasma, hepatic and fecal lipid profiles, as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, than of the hypercholesteremic animals.
Conclusion: The multigrain diet used in the present study is effective in countering the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress caused by high cholesterol intake.
Keywords: enzymatic antioxidants; fecal lipids; lipid metabolism; multigrain; non-enzymatic antioxidants; oxidative stress.