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Review
, 2014 (4), 394-408
eCollection

Arab Gene Geography: From Population Diversities to Personalized Medical Genomics

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Review

Arab Gene Geography: From Population Diversities to Personalized Medical Genomics

Ghazi O Tadmouri et al. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract.

Abstract

Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations.

Keywords: Arab populations; gene geography; genetic disorders; neolithic; neoplasms; population genetics.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Out-of-Africa migration routes.

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