The Afrotropical endemic pollen beetle genera Tarchonanthogethes Audisio & Cline and Xenostrongylogethes Audisio & Cline, of the Anthystrix genus-complex, are revised. Eleven new species of Tarchonanthogethes (T. autumnalis, sp. nov., T. bisignatus, sp. nov., T. fasciatus, sp. nov., T. gratiellae, sp. nov., T. hermani, sp. nov., T. hystrix, sp. nov., T. lilliputianus, sp. nov., T. maasai, sp. nov., T. manconiae, sp. nov., T. pectinipes, sp. nov., T. thalycriformis, sp. nov.) and one new Xenostrongylogethes (X. cychramoides, sp. nov.) are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa. Tarchonanthogethes hirtus Kirejtshuk & Easton, 1988 is synonymized with T. martini (syn. nov.). Meligethes assutus Easton, 1960 from Kenya is transferred from Afrogethes Audisio & Cline to Tarchonanthogethes (comb. nov.). Meligethes singularis Grouvelle, 1919 from southern Africa is transferred from Tarchonanthogethes to Meligethinus Grouvelle, 1906 (comb. nov.). Larval host-plants for Tarchonanthogethes and Xenostrongylogethes include dioecious bushes and trees of Tarchonantheae Asteraceae (genera Brachylaena R.Br. and Tarchonanthus L.). All species currently attributed to the genera Anthystrix Kirejtshuk, Sebastiangethes Audisio, Kirk-Spriggs & Cline, Tarchonanthogethes and Xenostrongylogethes (Anthystrix genus-complex) are included in a morphology-based cladistic analysis to provide a rigorous hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. An identification key to all 25 known species in the Anthystrix genus-complex, including all available data on insect host plant relationships, is presented.