The impact of aluminum, fluoride, and aluminum-fluoride complexes in drinking water on chronic kidney disease

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Jul;22(14):11001-9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4324-y. Epub 2015 Mar 20.


It is suspected that drinking water containing fluoride and aluminum results in negative health effects especially on brain, liver, and kidney. In this investigation, the effect of F, Al, and AlFx complex on chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated. Mice were treated either with WHO recommended or slightly higher F and Al levels in drinking water. Treatment solutions contained 0.05-10.0 mg/L of F, 0.08-10.0 mg/L of Al, or 0.07-15 mg/L of AlFx, and the treatment period was 42 weeks. Blood urea level and creatinine levels were investigated as a measure of malfunction of kidneys. Histopathological evaluations of kidney tissues were carried out to assess the extent of damage that F, Al, and AlFx complex could cause. It was demonstrated that the treated drinking water containing F and Al with par with WHO or moderately above the WHO levels or AlFx in low level (0.07-15 mg/L) does not lead to CKD in mice.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / pharmacokinetics
  • Aluminum / toxicity*
  • Aluminum Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • Aluminum Compounds / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Drinking Water
  • Female
  • Fluorides / pharmacokinetics
  • Fluorides / toxicity*
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
  • Urea / blood
  • Water Purification


  • Aluminum Compounds
  • Drinking Water
  • Urea
  • Creatinine
  • Aluminum
  • Fluorides
  • aluminum fluoride