Association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome in a three-year population-based cohort study

J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):332-6. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20140131. Epub 2015 Mar 14.


Background: Metabolic syndrome has received increased global attention over the past few years. Eating behaviors, particularly eating speed, have long been of interest as factors that contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating speed and incidence of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people.

Methods: A total of 8941 community residents from Soka City in Saitama Prefecture, aged from 40 to 75 years and without a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, participated in the baseline survey in 2008 and were followed until 2011. Anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors were measured at baseline and follow-up. The association between eating speed and incidence of metabolic syndrome was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding variables.

Results: During the 3-year follow-up, 647 people were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (25.0 cases/1000 person-years). The incidence rates of metabolic syndrome among non-fast-eating and fast-eating participants were 2.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for incidence of metabolic syndrome in the fast-eating group compared to the not-fast-eating group was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.60) after adjustment for the potential confounding factors. Eating speed was significantly correlated with waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) components of metabolic risk factors. Hazard ratios in the fast-eating group compared with the reference group were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.10-1.66) for waist circumference and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.12-1.67) for HDL-C.

Conclusions: Eating speed was associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Eating slowly is therefore suggested to be an important lifestyle factor for preventing metabolic syndrome among the Japanese.

背景:: 近年、メタボリックシンドローム(MetS)が世界的に注目されている。食習慣、特に食べる速さは肥満と糖尿病の発生につながる因子の一つとして多くの関心を集めている。本研究は、日本の中高年齢者における食べる速さとMetS罹患率の関連を明らかにすることを目的とした。

方法:: 2008年にベースライン調査を受けた埼玉県草加市の住民の中、MetSを除外した40歳から75歳までの8,941人を2011年まで追跡した。検査項目及びライフスタイルはベースラインとフォローアップ時に測定した。分析は潜在的な交絡因子を調整したコックス比例ハザードモデルを用いて、食べる速さとMetS罹患率との関連を検討した。

結果:: 追跡した3年の間では647名がMetS(25.0/1000人年)と診断された。食べるが速くない群と速い群のMetS罹患率はそれぞれ2.3%と3.1%で、潜在的な交絡因子を調整したハザード比(95%CI)は1.00(参照)と1.30(1.05-1.60)であった。また、食べる速さと腹囲やHDLコレステロールとの関連が認められ、参照群に比べて食べる速さが速い群のハザート比(95%CI)はそれぞれ1.35(1.10-1.66)と1.37(1.12-1.67)で有意に髙かった。

結論:: 食べる速さはMetS罹患率との関連が認められた。ゆっくり食べることは日本人のMetSを防止するための重要なライフスタイルであることが示唆された。

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors