Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology, in the north central region of Sri Lanka

J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):275-80. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20140074. Epub 2015 Mar 17.


Background: The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology.

Results: The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30-40 years; 7% in those aged 41-50 years, 20% in those aged 51-60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%.

Conclusions: Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Agriculture
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Natural Springs
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sri Lanka / epidemiology
  • Young Adult