The translation products synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, from total cellular mRNA from the human epithelial cell-line ME-180, have been examined. Keratin proteins are prominent among these translation products, and they precisely coelectrophorese in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with keratins purified from the cells. Type-I, acidic, keratins which are acetylated in vivo, are also acetylated by the reticulocyte lysate. Examination by two-dimensional electrophoresis, of two acidic keratins known to be phosphorylated in vivo reveals that only one of these proteins is phosphorylated in the lysate system. Phosphorylation of this protein occurs after release of the completed polypeptide chain from the ribosome. The protein phosphorylated by the lysate is known to be the only ME-180 phosphokeratin modulated by cyclic AMP, reflecting in vitro the differential modification of ME-180 keratins in vivo.