Cell death and inflammation in the proximal tubules are the hallmarks of cisplatin-induced AKI, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis, has a role in cisplatin-induced AKI. We found that inhibition of any of the core components of the necroptotic pathway-receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, or mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-by gene knockout or a chemical inhibitor diminished cisplatin-induced proximal tubule damage in mice. Similar results were obtained in cultured proximal tubular cells. Furthermore, necroptosis of cultured cells could be induced by cisplatin or by a combination of cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, and IFN-γ) that were upregulated in proximal tubules of cisplatin-treated mice. However, cisplatin induced an increase in RIP1 and RIP3 expression in cultured tubular cells in the absence of cytokine release. Correspondingly, overexpression of RIP1 or RIP3 enhanced cisplatin-induced necroptosis in vitro. Notably, inflammatory cytokine upregulation in cisplatin-treated mice was partially diminished in RIP3- or MLKL-deficient mice, suggesting a positive feedback loop involving these genes and inflammatory cytokines that promotes necroptosis progression. Thus, our data demonstrate that necroptosis is a major mechanism of proximal tubular cell death in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic AKI.
Keywords: cisplatin nephrotoxicity; necroptosis; renal proximal tubule cell.
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.