Serum estradiol/free testosterone ratio can be important predictor for varicose vein recurrence in men

Int Angiol. 2015 Dec;34(6):576-81. Epub 2015 Mar 20.


Aim: Recurrent varicose veins are a frustration for both the patient and the surgeon. More investigation of the exact diagnosis, proper practice, and causes for the recurrence of varicose veins is needed.

Methods: We investigated a total number of 187 patients in a five year period with an estradiol-2/free testosterone (E2/fT) ratio relationship on recurrent varicose veins in men between the ages of 20-50. Fifity years was the maximum age due to the age dependent sex steroid hormone regression that occurs after this age, which may interefere with the assessment. Fifty three men with an elevated E2/fT ratio (group A), and 143 men with no endocrinologic problems (group B) were enrolled in the study and had surgery for varicose veins. After 5 years follow up (mean 3 years), Group A (N.=29) and group B (N.=43) had recurrent varicose veins by clinical and radiologic findings. Venous blood samples were driven from all patients of both groups in the morning to detect the levels of serum E2 and fT levels. Patient history of surgery for varicose veins, physical examination, color duplex ultrasound of both limbs, and classification of CEAP were performed in both groups.

Results: The serum E2/fT ratio was significantly higher in Group A (5.21 ± 0.56) compared to group B (2.54±0.27) in the recurrent varicose vein groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, there was a high correlation between serum E2/fT ratio and the CEAP clinical classification in group A (5) compared to group B (2) (P≤0.05). Also, recurrence rate was higher in group A (54%) compared to group B (32%)(P≤0.05).

Conclusion: Elevated serum E2/fT ratio is a precipitating factor for recurrent varicose veins in male patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Estradiol / blood*
  • Extremities / diagnostic imaging
  • Femoral Vein / diagnostic imaging
  • Femoral Vein / surgery
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Recurrence
  • Saphenous Vein / diagnostic imaging
  • Saphenous Vein / surgery
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Turkey
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
  • Varicose Veins / blood
  • Varicose Veins / diagnosis*
  • Varicose Veins / surgery
  • Venous Insufficiency / diagnosis*
  • Young Adult


  • Testosterone
  • Estradiol