Purpose: To report the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in African Americans with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes in the Jackson Heart Study and to determine if P-selectin plasma levels are independently associated with retinopathy in this population.
Design: Prospective, cross-sectional observational study.
Methods: setting: Community-based epidemiologic study.
Study population: Total of 629 patients with type 2 diabetes and 266 participants with impaired fasting glucose.
Observation procedures: Bilateral, 7-field fundus photographs were scored by masked readers for diabetic retinopathy (DR) level. Covariate data including P-selectin plasma levels and genotypes were collected in a standardized fashion.
Main outcome measures: Association between risk factors, including P-selectin plasma levels and genotypes, and retinopathy.
Results: The prevalences of any retinopathy among participants with IFG and type 2 diabetes were 9.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Among those with type 2 diabetes, in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, and other traditional risk factors, higher P-selectin levels were associated with any DR (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.21, P = .02) and proliferative DR (odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.46, P = .02). To further investigate the relationship between P-selectin and DR, we examined the association between P-selectin genotype and DR. Minor allele homozygotes for the variant rs6128 were less likely to develop DR (P after Bonferroni correction = 0.03).
Conclusions: Both serologic and genetic data show an association between P-selectin and DR in the Jackson Heart Study. If confirmed in other studies, this association may provide insight into the pathogenesis of retinopathy.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.