Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Low-dose computed tomography screening (LDCT) was recently shown to anticipate the time of diagnosis, thus reducing lung cancer mortality. However, concerns persist about the feasibility and costs of large-scale LDCT programs. Such concerns may be addressed by clearly defining the target "high-risk" population that needs to be screened by LDCT. We recently identified a serum microRNA signature (the miR-Test) that could identify the optimal target population. Here, we performed a large-scale validation study of the miR-Test in high-risk individuals (n = 1115) enrolled in the Continuous Observation of Smoking Subjects (COSMOS) lung cancer screening program. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the miR-Test are 74.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.2% to 77.6%), 77.8% (95% CI = 64.2% to 91.4%), and 74.8% (95% CI = 72.1% to 77.5%), respectively; the area under the curve is 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.92). These results argue that the miR-Test might represent a useful tool for lung cancer screening in high-risk individuals.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.