The Emerging Potential of the Apelin-APJ System in Heart Failure

J Card Fail. 2015 Jun;21(6):489-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2015.03.007. Epub 2015 Mar 18.


The apelin-APJ system is a novel neurohormonal pathway, with studies to date suggesting that it may be of pathophysiologic relevance in heart failure and may indeed be a viable therapeutic target in this syndrome. This interest is driven primarily by the demonstration of its vasodilator, inotropic, and aquaretic actions as well as its apparent antagonistic relationship with the renin-angiotensin system. However, its promise is heightened further by the observation that, unlike other and more established cardioprotective pathways, it appears to be down-regulated in heart failure, suggesting that augmentation of this axis may have a powerful effect on the heart failure syndrome. We review the literature regarding the apelin-APJ system in heart failure and suggest areas requiring further research.

Keywords: APJ; Apelin; heart failure; neurohormone; pathophysiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apelin Receptors
  • Down-Regulation
  • Heart Failure / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology
  • Signal Transduction*


  • APLNR protein, human
  • Apelin Receptors
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled