The addition of E (Empowerment and Economics) to the ABCD algorithm in diabetes care

J Diabetes Complications. May-Jun 2015;29(4):599-606. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Mar 11.


The ABCD (Age, Body weight, Complications, Duration of disease) algorithm was proposed as a simple and practical tool to manage patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes treatment, as for all chronic diseases, relies on patients' ability to cope with daily problems concerning the management of their disease in accordance with medical recommendations. Thus, it is important that patients learn to manage and cope with their disease and gain greater control over actions and decisions affecting their health. Healthcare professionals should aim to encourage and increase patients' perception about their ability to take informed decisions about disease management and to improve patient self-esteem and feeling of self-efficacy to become agents of their own health. E for Empowerment is therefore an additional factor to take into account in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. E stands also for Economics to be considered in diabetes care. Attention should be paid to public health policies as well as to the physician faced with the dilemma of delivering the best possible care within the problem of limited resources. The financial impact of the new treatment modalities for diabetes represents an issue that needs to be addressed at multiple strata both globally and nationally.

Keywords: Costs; Diabetes; Economics of diabetes; Empowerment; Patient participation; Policy; Self-management.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Algorithms*
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Diabetes Complications / economics
  • Diabetes Complications / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / economics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Patient Participation* / psychology
  • Self Care / economics
  • Self Care / psychology
  • Time Factors