Multiscale Assembly for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Trends Biotechnol. 2015 May;33(5):269-279. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2015.02.003. Epub 2015 Mar 18.


Our understanding of cell biology and its integration with materials science has led to technological innovations in the bioengineering of tissue-mimicking grafts that can be utilized in clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Bioengineering of native-like multiscale building blocks provides refined control over the cellular microenvironment, thus enabling functional tissues. In this review, we focus on assembling building blocks from the biomolecular level to the millimeter scale. We also provide an overview of techniques for assembling molecules, cells, spheroids, and microgels and achieving bottom-up tissue engineering. Additionally, we discuss driving mechanisms for self- and guided assembly to create micro-to-macro scale tissue structures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cellular Microenvironment
  • Humans
  • Regenerative Medicine / methods*
  • Regenerative Medicine / trends
  • Tissue Culture Techniques
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Engineering / trends
  • Tissue Scaffolds