Education of Physicians and Implementation of a Formal Referral System Can Improve Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral and Participation Rates after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Heart Lung Circ. 2015 Aug;24(8):806-16. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2015.02.006. Epub 2015 Feb 20.


Background: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective preventive measure that remains underutilised in the United States. The study aimed to determine the CR referral rate (RR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at an academic tertiary care centre, identify barriers to referral, and evaluate awareness of CR benefits and indications (CRBI) among cardiologists. Subsequently, it aimed to evaluate if an intervention consisting of physicians' education about CRBI and implementation of a formal CR referral system could improve RR and consequently participation rate (PR).

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all consecutive patients who underwent PCI over 12 months. Referral rate was determined and variables were compared for differences between referred and non-referred patients. A questionnaire was distributed among the physicians in the Division of Cardiology to assess awareness of CRBI and referral practice patterns. After implementation of the intervention, data were collected retrospectively for consecutive patients who underwent PCI in the following six months. Referral rate and changes in PRs were determined.

Results: Prior to the intervention, RR was 17.6%. Different barriers were identified, but the questionnaire revealed lack of physicians' awareness of CRBI and inconsistent referral patterns. After the intervention, RR increased to 88.96% (Odds Ratio 37.73, 95% CI 21.34-66.70, p<0.0001) and PR increased by 32.8% to reach 26%. Personal endorsement of CRBI by cardiologists known to patients increased CR program graduation rate by 35%.

Conclusions: Cardiologists' awareness of CRBI increases CR RR and their personal endorsement improves PR and compliance. Education of providers and implementation of a formal referral system can improve RR and PR.

Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation; Education; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Prevention; Referral..

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Education, Medical, Continuing*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / education*
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / methods
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / rehabilitation*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Tertiary Healthcare*