Epidemiological studies suggest an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Our aim was to compare the global proteomic portrait in the cerebral cortex between mice born to mothers on a high-fat or control diet who themselves were fed a high-fat or control diet. Male mice born to dams fed a control (C) or high-fat (H) diet 4 weeks before conception and during gestation, and lactation were assigned to either C or H diet at weaning. Mice were killed at 19 weeks and their cerebral cortices were analysed using a two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology. In total, 6 695 proteins were identified (q<0.01), 10% of which were modulated in at least one of the groups relative to controls. In silico analysis revealed that mice clustered based on the diet of the mother and not their own diet and that maternal high-fat diet was significantly associated with response to hypoxia/oxidative stress and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of the adult offspring. Maternal high-fat diet resulted in distinct endophenotypic changes of the adult offspring cerebral cortex independent of its current diet. The identified proteins could represent novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of neuropathological features resulting from maternal obesity.