To prevent the spread of infection, an invading pathogen must first be recognized by the innate immune system. Host pattern recognition receptors detect distinct pathogen-associated molecules and induce the transcription and release of interferon and inflammatory molecules to resolve infection. Unlike infections with pathogens that replicate autonomously from the host, viral infections blur the boundaries of self and non-self. Differentiation of host from virus is achieved by restricting localization of host nucleic acids and by placing pattern recognition receptors in specific subcellular compartments. Within this review, we discuss how several families of pattern recognition receptors act to provide a comprehensive surveillance network that has the potential to induce interferon expression in response to any viral infection.
Keywords: Innate immunity; Interferon; RIG-I-like Receptors; STING; Toll-like Receptors; cGAS.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.