PRRs are watching you: Localization of innate sensing and signaling regulators

Virology. 2015 May:479-480:104-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.051. Epub 2015 Mar 20.


To prevent the spread of infection, an invading pathogen must first be recognized by the innate immune system. Host pattern recognition receptors detect distinct pathogen-associated molecules and induce the transcription and release of interferon and inflammatory molecules to resolve infection. Unlike infections with pathogens that replicate autonomously from the host, viral infections blur the boundaries of self and non-self. Differentiation of host from virus is achieved by restricting localization of host nucleic acids and by placing pattern recognition receptors in specific subcellular compartments. Within this review, we discuss how several families of pattern recognition receptors act to provide a comprehensive surveillance network that has the potential to induce interferon expression in response to any viral infection.

Keywords: Innate immunity; Interferon; RIG-I-like Receptors; STING; Toll-like Receptors; cGAS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Viruses / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition