Background: Endothelin 1 (ET-1) contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) development and progression, and endothelin receptor antagonists are being investigated as a novel therapy for CKD. The proET-1 peptides, endothelin-like domain peptide (ELDP) and C-terminal pro-ET-1 (CT-proET-1), are both potential biomarkers of CKD and response to therapy with endothelin antagonists.
Methods and results: We assessed plasma and urine ELDP and plasma CT-proET-1 in CKD patients with minimal comorbidity. Next, in a randomized double-blind crossover study of 27 subjects with proteinuric CKD, we examined the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with placebo, sitaxentan (endothelin A antagonist), and nifedipine on these peptides alongside the primary end points of proteinuria, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. Plasma ELDP and CT-proET-1 increased with CKD stage (both P<0.0001), correlating inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate (both P<0.0001). Following intervention, placebo and nifedipine did not affect plasma and urine ELDP or plasma CT-proET-1. Sitaxentan increased both plasma ELDP and CT-proET-1 (baseline versus week 6±SEM: ELDP, 11.8±0.5 versus 13.4±0.6 fmol/mL; CT-proET-1, 20.5±1.2 versus 23.3±1.5 fmol/mL; both P<0.0001). Plasma ET-1 was unaffected by any treatment. Following sitaxentan, plasma ELDP and CT-proET-1 correlated negatively with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.
Conclusions: ELDP and CT-proET-1 increase in CKD and thus are potentially useful biomarkers of renal injury. Increases in response to endothelin A antagonism may reflect EDN1 upregulation, which may partly explain fluid retention with these agents.
Clinical trial registration: URL: www.clinicalTrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00810732.
Keywords: CKD; antagonists; endothelin; fluid retention.
© 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.