Eosinophils in Mucosal Immune Responses

Mucosal Immunol. 2015 May;8(3):464-75. doi: 10.1038/mi.2015.2. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Abstract

Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation, and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines, and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Asthma / drug therapy
  • Asthma / immunology*
  • Asthma / pathology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Enteritis / drug therapy
  • Enteritis / immunology*
  • Enteritis / pathology
  • Eosinophilia / drug therapy
  • Eosinophilia / immunology*
  • Eosinophilia / pathology
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / drug therapy
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / immunology*
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / pathology
  • Eosinophils / drug effects
  • Eosinophils / immunology*
  • Eosinophils / pathology
  • Gastritis / drug therapy
  • Gastritis / immunology*
  • Gastritis / pathology
  • Gene Expression
  • Homeostasis / drug effects
  • Homeostasis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology

Substances

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Cytokines
  • Immunologic Factors

Supplementary concepts

  • Eosinophilic enteropathy