Recent imaging advances in neurology

J Neurol. 2015 Sep;262(9):2182-94. doi: 10.1007/s00415-015-7711-x. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Abstract

Over the recent years, the application of neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has considerably advanced the understanding of complex neurological disorders. PET is a powerful molecular imaging tool, which investigates the distribution and binding of radiochemicals attached to biologically relevant molecules; as such, this technique is able to give information on biochemistry and metabolism of the brain in health and disease. MRI uses high intensity magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to provide structural and functional information on tissues and organs in intact or diseased individuals, including the evaluation of white matter integrity, grey matter thickness and brain perfusion. The aim of this article is to review the most recent advances in neuroimaging research in common neurological disorders such as movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate their contribution in the diagnosis and management of patients.

Keywords: Dementia; Epilepsy; Magnetic resonance imaging; Movement disorders; Multiple sclerosis; Positron emission tomography; Traumatic brain injury.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Neurology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon