Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model

Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Apr;41(8):1036-48. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12878. Epub 2015 Mar 21.


Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN.

Keywords: GABAergic; afterhyperpolarization; cholinergic; firing pattern; whole-cell recording.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials
  • Animals
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / cytology
  • Medulla Oblongata / metabolism
  • Medulla Oblongata / physiology*
  • Membrane Potentials*
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Pons / cytology
  • Pons / metabolism
  • Pons / physiology*
  • Presynaptic Terminals / metabolism
  • Rats, Transgenic
  • Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins / metabolism*


  • Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins
  • vesicular GABA transporter
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase