Recent cardiovascular research showed that, together with β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs), β3-ARs contribute to the catecholamine (CA)-dependent control of the heart. β3-ARs structure, function and ligands were investigated in mammals because of their applicative potential in human cardiovascular diseases. Only recently, the concept of a β3-AR-dependent cardiac modulation was extended to non-mammalian vertebrates, although information is still scarce and fragmentary. β3-ARs were structurally described in fish, showing a closer relationship to mammalian β1-AR than β2-AR. Functional β3-ARs are present in the cardiac tissue of teleosts and amphibians. As in mammals, activation of these receptors elicits a negative modulation of the inotropic performance through the involvement of the endothelium endocardium (EE), Gi/0 proteins and the nitric oxide (NO) signalling. This review aims to comparatively analyse data from literature on β3-ARs in mammals, with those on teleosts and amphibians. The purpose is to highlight aspects of uniformity and diversity of β3-ARs structure, ligands activity, function and signalling cascades throughout vertebrates. This may provide new perspectives aimed to clarify the biological relevance of β3-ARs in the context of the nervous and humoral control of the heart and its functional plasticity.
Keywords: adrenergic receptors; amphibians; cardiac performance; mammals; nitric oxide; teleosts.
© 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.