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, 10 (3), e0121106
eCollection

Genetic Divergence in Domesticated and Non-Domesticated Gene Regions of Barley Chromosomes

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Genetic Divergence in Domesticated and Non-Domesticated Gene Regions of Barley Chromosomes

Songxian Yan et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Little is known about the genetic divergence in the chromosomal regions with domesticated and non-domesticated genes. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of natural selection on shaping genetic diversity of chromosome region with domesticated and non-domesticated genes in barley using 110 SSR markers. Comparison of the genetic diversity loss between wild and cultivated barley for each chromosome showed that chromosome 5H had the highest divergence of 35.29%, followed by 3H, 7H, 4H, 2H, 6H. Diversity ratio was calculated as (diversity of wild type - diversity of cultivated type)/diversity of wild type×100%. It was found that diversity ratios of the domesticated regions on 5H, 1H and 7H were higher than those of non-domesticated regions. Diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 2H and 4H is similar to that of non-domesticated region. However, diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 3H is lower than that of non-domesticated region. Averaged diversity among six chromosomes in domesticated region was 33.73% difference between wild and cultivated barley, and was 27.56% difference in the non-domesticated region. The outcome of this study advances our understanding of the evolution of crop chromosomes.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: This manuscript or substantial parts of it, submitted to the journal has not be under consideration by any other journal. No material submitted as part of a manuscript infringes existing copyrights, or the rights of a third party. All authors have approved the manuscript. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1. The SSR markers in domesticated regions and non-domesticated regions divided based on the genetic distance (cM).
The location of SSR marker in each linkage group is mainly based on Varshney et al. (2007) [43]. The dot on the chromosome represented the position of domesticated genes: Ppd-H2 gene on chromosome 1H, Ppd-H1 gene (top) and Vrs1 gene (bottom) on chromosome 2H, btr1 and btr2 genes (linked tightly) on 3H, Sgh1 gene on the 4H, main QTLs (SD1, top and SD2, bottom) on chromosome 5H, and nud gene on the chromosome 7H, No domesticated gene on 6H chromosome.

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Grant support

This project was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31228017), an earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-5). The National Natural Science Foundation of China AND the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System, are two separate organizations. All funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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