Because of the different attenuations of tissues at different energy levels, dual-energy CT offers tissue differentiation and characterization, reduction of artifacts, and remodeling of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hereby creating new opportunities and insights in CT imaging. The applications for dual-energy imaging in neuroradiology are various and still expanding. Automated bone removal is used in CT angiography and CT venography of the intracranial vessels. Monoenergetic reconstructions can be used in patients with or without metal implants in the brain and spine to reduce artifacts, improve CNR and SNR, or to improve iodine conspicuity. Differentiation of iodine and hemorrhage is used in high-density lesions, after intra-arterial recanalization in stroke patients or after administration of contrast media. Detection of underlying (vascular and non-vascular) pathology and spot sign can be used in patients presenting with (acute) intracranial hemorrhage.
Keywords: Bone removal; Circle of Willis; Dual-energy CT; Intra-arterial recanalization; Iodine overlay; Virtual non-contrast.