A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 27;10(3):e0117634. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117634. eCollection 2015.


We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actin Cytoskeleton / metabolism*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Connectin / metabolism
  • Models, Biological*
  • Muscle Contraction*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*


  • Connectin

Grant support

Funding provided by the Austrian Science Fund: www.fwf.ac.at, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada: www.nserc-crsng.gc.ca, the Canada Research Chair Programme: www.chairs-chaires.gc.ca/home-accueil-eng.aspx, and the Killam Foundation: http://killamlaureates.ca. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.