In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the inflammatory potential of various nanoporous hydroxyapatite biomaterials

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015;10(5):785-802. doi: 10.2217/nnm.15.12.


Aim: To discriminate the most important physicochemical parameters for bone reconstruction, the inflammatory potential of seven nanoporous hydroxyapatite powders synthesized by hard or soft templating was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.

Materials & methods: After physical and chemical characterization of the powders, we studied the production of inflammatory mediators by human primary monocytes after 4 and 24 h in contact with powders, and the host response after 2 weeks implantation in a mouse critical size defect model.

Results: In vitro results highlighted increases in the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1, -8, -10 and proMMP-2 and -9 and decreases in the secretion of IL-6 only for powders prepared by hard templating. In vivo observations confirmed an extensive inflammatory tissue reaction and a strong resorption for the most inflammatory powder in vitro.

Conclusion: These findings highlight that the most critical physicochemical parameters for these nanoporous hydroxyapatite are, the crystallinity that controls dissolution potential, the specific surface area and the size and shape of crystallites.

Keywords: bone substitutes; critical size defects; inflammation; mice; monocytes; nanoporous calcium phosphates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Biocompatible Materials / toxicity*
  • Bone Substitutes / chemistry
  • Bone Substitutes / toxicity
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Durapatite / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Inflammation / chemically induced*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Materials Testing
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanopores
  • Osseointegration
  • Powders


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Substitutes
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Powders
  • Durapatite