A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 Jun 15;285(3):198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.02.017. Epub 2015 Mar 25.


Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV+2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P<0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P<0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P<0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product.

Keywords: Anti-HIV microbicides; BPI; EMP-1; Inflammation; RVI; Toll-like receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / administration & dosage
  • Adenine / adverse effects
  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Animals
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical*
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-8 / genetics
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Mucous Membrane / drug effects
  • Mucous Membrane / metabolism
  • Nonoxynol / administration & dosage
  • Nonoxynol / adverse effects
  • Nuclease Protection Assays / methods*
  • Oligopeptides / genetics
  • Oligopeptides / metabolism
  • Organophosphonates / administration & dosage
  • Organophosphonates / adverse effects
  • Rabbits
  • Tenofovir
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism
  • Transcriptome*
  • Vagina / drug effects*
  • Vagina / pathology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-8
  • Oligopeptides
  • Organophosphonates
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • valyl-seryl-tryptophyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanyl-glutamic acid
  • Nonoxynol
  • Tenofovir
  • Adenine