Characterization of the Carbohydrate Binding Module 18 gene family in the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Fungal Genet Biol. 2015 Apr:77:31-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2015.03.003. Epub 2015 Mar 25.


Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis responsible for worldwide decline in amphibian populations. Previous analysis of the Bd genome revealed a unique expansion of the carbohydrate-binding module family 18 (CBM18) predicted to be a sub-class of chitin recognition domains. CBM expansions have been linked to the evolution of pathogenicity in a variety of fungal species by protecting the fungus from the host. Based on phylogenetic analysis and presence of additional protein domains, the gene family can be classified into 3 classes: Tyrosinase-, Deacetylase-, and Lectin-like. Examination of the mRNA expression levels from sporangia and zoospores of nine of the cbm18 genes found that the Lectin-like genes had the highest expression while the Tyrosinase-like genes showed little expression, especially in zoospores. Heterologous expression of GFP-tagged copies of four CBM18 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that two copies containing secretion signal peptides are trafficked to the cell boundary. The Lectin-like genes cbm18-ll1 and cbm18-ll2 co-localized with the chitinous cell boundaries visualized by staining with calcofluor white. In vitro assays of the full length and single domain copies from CBM18-LL1 demonstrated chitin binding and no binding to cellulose or xylan. Expressed CBM18 domain proteins were demonstrated to protect the fungus, Trichoderma reeseii, in vitro against hydrolysis from exogenously added chitinase, likely by binding and limiting exposure of fungal chitin. These results demonstrate that cbm18 genes can play a role in fungal defense and expansion of their copy number may be an important pathogenicity factor of this emerging infectious disease of amphibians.

Keywords: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; CBM18; Cell boundary localization; Chitin binding; Chytrid.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amphibians / microbiology
  • Animals
  • Chitin / metabolism
  • Chitinases / metabolism
  • Chytridiomycota / cytology
  • Chytridiomycota / genetics
  • Chytridiomycota / metabolism*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Lectins / genetics
  • Lectins / metabolism*
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism*
  • Multigene Family
  • Nicotiana / enzymology
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*


  • Lectins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • saccharide-binding proteins
  • Chitin
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Chitinases