Sedation with the Combination of Ketamine and Propofol in a Pediatric ED: A Retrospective Case Series Analysis

Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Jun;33(6):815-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.03.033. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Abstract

Background: Literature to date has suggested advantages of sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol over ketamine alone or propofol alone. However, there is a paucity of data regarding sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in pediatric emergency medicine.

Methods: A retrospective case series analysis of children who underwent sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in a pediatric emergency department was conducted. Study covariates were extracted from the emergency department medical records.

Results: Four hundred twenty-nine patients, 297 males and 132 females, with a median age of 6.8 years (interquartile range, 3.9-10.9 years), underwent sedation by pediatric emergency physicians. Serious adverse events during sedation (SAEDS) were recorded in 52 procedures (12.1%), which included 39 hypoxic events (9.1%), 12 apneic events (2.8%), and 1 laryngospasm (0.2%). All SAEDS were managed successfully, and no child underwent intubation because of an adverse reaction or required hospitalization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis did not reveal any association between age, weight, fasting time, analgesic medication provided before sedation, length of procedure, capnography use, dosages of medications, and the presence of SAEDS.

Conclusions: This is the largest reported series of sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in pediatric emergency medicine. Findings suggest that sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol can be safely performed by a skilled emergency physician.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Dissociative / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Conscious Sedation / methods*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Emergency Service, Hospital*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use*
  • Ketamine / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Propofol / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies

Substances

  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Ketamine
  • Propofol