Protective Effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) in Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Oct;35(7):921-30. doi: 10.1007/s10571-015-0187-5. Epub 2015 Mar 29.


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has invoked considerable interest because of its presence in foods, antioxidant properties, cofactor of dehydrogenase, and amine oxidase. Protective roles of PQQ in central nervous system diseases, such as experimental stroke and spinal cord injury models have been emerged. However, it is unclear whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as an acute devastating disease, can also benefit from PQQ in experimental conditions. Herein, we examined the possible effect of PQQ on neuronal functions following ICH in the adult rats. The results showed that rats pretreated with PQQ at 10 mg/kg effectively improved the locomotor functions, alleviated the hematoma volumes, and reduced the expansion of brain edema after ICH. Also, pretreated rats with PQQ obviously reduced the production of reactive oxygen species after ICH, probably due to its antioxidant properties. Further, we found that, Bcl-2/Bax, the important indicator of oxidative stress insult in mitochondria after ICH, exhibited increasing ratio in PQQ-pretreated groups. Moreover, activated caspase-3, the apoptotic executor, showed coincident alleviation in PQQ groups after ICH. Collectively, we speculated that PQQ might be an effective and potential neuroprotectant in clinical therapy for ICH.

Keywords: ICH; Neuroprotectant; PQQ; ROS; Rat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / metabolism
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / prevention & control*
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Male
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • PQQ Cofactor / pharmacology
  • PQQ Cofactor / therapeutic use*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • PQQ Cofactor