Renal dysplasia is an aberrant developmental disease usually diagnosed during the perinatal and childhood years. Prevalence is estimated at 0.1% of infants (via ultrasound screening) and 4% of fetuses and infants (via autopsy study). Occurrences may be combined with abnormalities in the collecting system or associated with complex syndromes. Histopathology shows primitive tubules surrounded by a fibromuscular collar. The differential diagnosis includes renal dysplasia, hypoplasia, and renal atrophy. Immunohistochemical expression of the paired box genes 2 and 8 (PAX2/8) and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is increased in the primitive ducts and fibromuscular collar, respectively. Renal dysplasia pathogenesis is not well understood, but may be caused by a nephron-inductive deficit due to ampullary inactivity or abnormal budding of the ureteric bud from the mesonephric duct. Either the PAX2 mutation only or cross-talk with the p53 pathway is involved in this deficit. Nephrectomy is the treatment of choice for symptomatic renal dysplasia.