Smoking cessation: an update

Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2014 Jul-Sep;56(3):161-9.


Intervention for smoking cessation has become on urgent need because of increasing tobacco use and health hazards, especially in developing countries. Smoking cessation will be at different states of readiness. The states may be: (i) not ready (pre-contemplation), (ii) unsure (contemplation), (iii) ready (preparation), (iv) action, and (v) maintenance. Counselling and behavioural management is important. The '5 A's-based intervention in the form of Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange is implemented. Pharmacologic management is based on first-line treatment in the form of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varinicline and second-line treatment as clonidine and nortriptalin. Every health professional has obligation to help their patients to quit and the intervention should be diagnostic and therapeutic. The best results are obtained by behavioural and social support combined with pharmacotherapy whenever needed. The paper highlights the important component of intervention in smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Behavior Therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Counseling
  • Humans
  • Motivation
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology
  • Social Support
  • Tobacco Use Cessation Devices
  • Treatment Outcome