Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common conditions affecting middle-aged men. This condition can be microscopic, macroscopic, symptomatic, or asymptomatic. Up to 15% to 25% of men aged 50-65 years have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consisting of nocturia, urgency, frequency, a sensation of not completely emptying the bladder, stop-start urination, straining to urinate, a need to urinate soon after voiding, and weak urinary stream. These symptoms usually are associated with benign enlargement of the prostate gland that is of sufficient severity to interfere with a man's quality of life. Although LUTS is often associated with BPH, LUTS can also be due to various unrelated syndromes such as heart failure, urinary tract infections, and diabetes. Most men will have benign hyperplasia of the prostate gland and this benign growth compresses the urethra resulting in LUTS. This article will discuss the evaluation, pharmacological management, minimally invasive treatment, and surgical therapy of this common condition affecting millions of American men.
Keywords: Prostate enlargement; benign prostate hyperplasia; lower urinary tract symptoms.