Purpose: Recent literature reports a potential association between high vitamin D and improved lymphoma prognosis. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment vitamin D on follicular lymphoma (FL) outcome.
Patients and methods: SWOG participants were previously untreated patients with FL enrolled onto SWOG clinical trials (S9800, S9911, or S0016) involving CHOP chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab or iodine-131 tositumomab) between 1998 and 2008. Participants included in our second independent cohort were also previously untreated patients with FL enrolled onto the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) PRIMA trial of rituximab plus chemotherapy (randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance v observation) between 2004 and 2007. Using the gold-standard liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored baseline serum samples. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).
Results: After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, the adjusted PFS and overall survival hazard ratios for the SWOG cohort were 1.97 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.53) and 4.16 (95% CI, 1.66 to 10.44), respectively, for those who were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/mL; 15% of cohort). After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the adjusted PFS and overall survival hazard ratios for the LYSA cohort were 1.50 (95% CI, 0.93 to 2.42) and 1.92 (95% CI, 0.72 to 5.13), respectively, for those who were vitamin D deficient (< 10 ng/mL; 25% of cohort).
Conclusion: Although statistical significance was not reached in the LYSA cohort, the consistent estimates of association between low vitamin D levels and FL outcomes in two independent cohorts suggests that serum vitamin D might be the first potentially modifiable factor to be associated with FL survival. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation in this clinical setting.
© 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.