Objectives: Randomized trials demonstrated that chromoendoscopy is superior to white light endoscopy with random biopsy sampling (WLE) for the detection of dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whether implementing chromoendoscopy can increase the detection of dysplasia in clinical practice is unknown.
Methods: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) undergoing colonoscopic surveillance between January 2000 and November 2013 in three referral centers were identified using the patients' medical records. In recent years, the use of high-definition chromoendoscopy was adopted in all three centers using segmental pancolonic spraying of 0.1% methylene blue or 0.3% indigo carmine (chromoendoscopy group). Previously, surveillance was performed employing WLE with random biopsies every 10 cm (WLE group). The percentage of colonoscopies with dysplasia was compared between both groups.
Results: A total of 440 colonoscopies in 401 patients were performed using chromoendoscopy and 1,802 colonoscopies in 772 patients using WLE. Except for a higher number of CD patients with extensive disease and more patients with a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the chromoendoscopy group, the known risk factors for IBD-associated CRC were comparable between both groups. Dysplasia was detected during 48 surveillance procedures (11%) in the chromoendoscopy group as compared with 189 procedures (10%) in the WLE group (P=0.80). Targeted biopsies yielded 59 dysplastic lesions in the chromoendoscopy group, comparable to the 211 dysplastic lesions detected in the WLE group (P=0.30).
Conclusions: Despite compelling evidence from randomized trials, implementation of chromoendoscopy for IBD surveillance did not increase dysplasia detection compared with WLE with targeted and random biopsies.