Consensus Paper: Neuroimmune Mechanisms of Cerebellar Ataxias

Cerebellum. 2016 Apr;15(2):213-32. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-0664-x.


In the last few years, a lot of publications suggested that disabling cerebellar ataxias may develop through immune-mediated mechanisms. In this consensus paper, we discuss the clinical features of the main described immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias and address their presumed pathogenesis. Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias include cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-GAD antibodies, the cerebellar type of Hashimoto's encephalopathy, primary autoimmune cerebellar ataxia, gluten ataxia, Miller Fisher syndrome, ataxia associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Humoral mechanisms, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, and vascular injuries contribute to the cerebellar deficits in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias.

Keywords: Anti-GAD antibodies; Cerebellar ataxias; Gluten ataxia; Hashimoto’s encephalopathy; Miller Fisher syndrome; Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; Primary autoimmune cerebellar ataxia; Systemic lupus erythematosus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cerebellar Ataxia / diagnosis
  • Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology*
  • Cerebellum / physiopathology*
  • Consensus*
  • Encephalitis / physiopathology*
  • Glutens / metabolism
  • Hashimoto Disease / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Neuroimmunomodulation / physiology*


  • Glutens

Supplementary concepts

  • Hashimoto's encephalitis