In the last few years, a lot of publications suggested that disabling cerebellar ataxias may develop through immune-mediated mechanisms. In this consensus paper, we discuss the clinical features of the main described immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias and address their presumed pathogenesis. Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias include cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-GAD antibodies, the cerebellar type of Hashimoto's encephalopathy, primary autoimmune cerebellar ataxia, gluten ataxia, Miller Fisher syndrome, ataxia associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Humoral mechanisms, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, and vascular injuries contribute to the cerebellar deficits in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias.
Keywords: Anti-GAD antibodies; Cerebellar ataxias; Gluten ataxia; Hashimoto’s encephalopathy; Miller Fisher syndrome; Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; Primary autoimmune cerebellar ataxia; Systemic lupus erythematosus.