Identification of a novel selective agonist of PPARγ with no promotion of adipogenesis and less inhibition of osteoblastogenesis

Sci Rep. 2015 Apr 1;5:9530. doi: 10.1038/srep09530.


Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. However, current PPARγ-targeting drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with undesirable side effects. We identified a small molecular compound, F12016, as a selective PPARγ agonist by virtual screening, which showed moderate PPARγ agonistic activity and binding ability for PPARγ. F12016 did not activate other PPAR subtypes at 30 μM and selectively modulated PPARγ target gene expression. In diabetic KKAy mice, F12016 had insulin-sensitizing and glucose-lowering properties, and suppressed weight gain. In vitro, F12016 effectively increased glucose uptake and blocked cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser273, but slightly triggered adipogenesis and less inhibited osteoblastogenesis than rosiglitazone. Moreover, compared with the full agonist rosiglitazone, F12016 had a distinct group of coregulators and a different predicted binding mode for the PPARγ ligand-binding domain. A site mutation assay confirmed the key epitopes, especially Tyr473 in AF-2. In summary, our study shows that F12016 is a non-TZD, novel selective PPARγ agonist without the classical lipogenic side effects, which may provide a new structural strategy for designing PPARγ ligands with advantages over TZDs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3-L1 Cells
  • Adipocytes / cytology
  • Adipocytes / drug effects
  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Adipogenesis / drug effects*
  • Animals
  • Benzamides / pharmacology*
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • Osteoblasts / cytology
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects*
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism*
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects*
  • PPAR gamma / agonists*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Binding
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology


  • 2-(2-(1,2-dimethyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetylamino)benzamide
  • Benzamides
  • Indoles
  • PPAR gamma
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5