A combination of palm oil tocotrienols and citrus peel polymethoxylated flavones does not influence elevated LDL cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov;69(11):1209-14. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.44. Epub 2015 Apr 1.


Background/objectives: Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects have been individually described for tocotrienols (TTs) and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs). This study investigated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)- and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)-reducing effects of combined TT-PMF treatment in low doses in hypercholesterolemic individuals with subclinical inflammation.

Subjects/methods: In the double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 240 Caucasians with LDL-C ⩾3.36 mmol/l and hsCRP ⩾1 mg/l were enrolled and randomized into group S1 (12 mg/day TT and 103 mg/day PMF), group S2 (27 mg/day TT and 32 mg/day PMF) or placebo.

Results: Twenty-three subjects dropped out of the study, 13 were excluded from the analysis because of lack of compliance. A total of 204 subjects per-protocol analysis were included. After 12 weeks of treatment, no significant differences in LDL-C levels (primary outcome) were observed between groups. LDL-C levels significantly decreased in all intervention groups (S1: -5.2%, S2: -4.8% and P: -4.2%). Total cholesterol and hsCRP (secondary outcome) did not change significantly.

Conclusions: PMF-TT supplements had no effect beyond that of placebo on elevated LDL-C and hsCRP levels.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Arecaceae / chemistry
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood*
  • Citrus / chemistry*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Flavones / pharmacology*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / blood*
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy
  • Hypercholesterolemia / pathology
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Palm Oil
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Tocotrienols / pharmacology*


  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Flavones
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Oils
  • Tocotrienols
  • Palm Oil
  • C-Reactive Protein