Diagnosis using the proximal and lateral nail folds

Dermatol Clin. 2015 Apr;33(2):207-41. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2014.12.004. Epub 2015 Feb 21.


This article includes the etiology and pathophysiological data of each entity, classifying them as dermatologic, systemic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, and other classifications. The entities inherent to the periungual folds are also included, such as acute paronychia, chronic paronychia, retronychia, hangnails, hematomas of the proximal fold caused by oximeter, onychocryptosis, hypertrophy of the lateral folds, and infections caused by Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, pathologies caused by diabetes mellitus, sepsis, endocarditis, drug reactions, and finally less frequent diseases that also affect the nail folds are discussed.

Keywords: Acute paronychia; Chronic paronychia; Hangnails; Ingrowing nails; Lateral nail fold dermatoses; Periungual folds; Proximal nail fold dermatoses; Retronychia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Chronic Disease
  • Finger Injuries / diagnosis
  • Foot Dermatoses / diagnosis*
  • Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Nail Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Nail Diseases / etiology*
  • Nails, Ingrown / diagnosis
  • Paronychia / diagnosis
  • Toes / injuries