Vitamin D supplementation and serum levels of magnesium and selenium in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: gender dimorphic changes

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2014;84(1-2):27-34. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000190.


The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on circulating levels of magnesium and selenium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 126 adult Saudi patients (55 men and 71 women, mean age 53.6±10.7 years) with controlled T2DM were randomly recruited for the study. All subjects were given vitamin D3 tablets (2000 IU/day) for six months. Follow-up mean concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) vitamin D] significantly increased in both men (34.1±12.4 to 57.8±17.0 nmol/L) and women (35.7±13.5 to 60.1±18.5 nmol/L, p<0.001), while levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly in both men (1.6±0.17 to 0.96±0.10 pmol/L, p=0.003) and women (1.6±0.17 to 1.0±0.14 pmol/L, p=0.02). In addition, there was a significant increase in serum levels of selenium and magnesium in men and women (p-values<0.001 and 0.04, respectively) after follow-up. In women, a significant correlation was observed between delta change (variables at six months-variable at baseline) of serum magnesium versus high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (r=0.36, p=0.006) and fasting glucose (r=-0.33, p=0.01). In men, there was a significant correlation between serum selenium and triglycerides (r=0.32, p=0.04). Vitamin D supplementation improves serum concentrations of magnesium and selenium in a gender-dependent manner, which in turn could affect several cardiometabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia; diabetes; hypovitaminosis D; magnesium; selenium.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Selenium / blood*
  • Sex Factors
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Selenium
  • Magnesium