Context: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and is associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Phylloquinone, menaquinones, and vitamin K status are associated with several components of MetS, but the association with MetS has hardly been studied to date.
Objective: This study aimed to examine whether the intake and/or status of vitamin K is associated with MetS and its components.
Design: This study comprised two cohorts, one of 402 women and one of 400 men (age 40-80 y). At followup 625 participants were still alive and willing to participate. Data were analyzed both cross sectionally and longitudinally with Poisson and linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders. Baseline phylloquinone/menaquinone intakes were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire and vitamin K status with serum desphospho-uncarborxylated matrix-Gla protein level.
Results: At baseline 270 (34.5%) participants had MetS and 171 (35.7%) at followup. Cross sectionally, high menaquinones intakes were associated (P(trend) = .08) with a lower prevalence of MetS with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.03) for the highest vs the lowest tertile. At followup, the highest tertiles of menaquinones intake (PR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95) and vitamin K status (PR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.87) were associated (P(trend) = .01) with a lower occurrence of MetS. These associations were mainly driven by relations with lower triacylglycerol concentrations for menaquinones and lower waist circumference for vitamin K status. Phylloquinone intake was not associated with MetS prevalence.
Conclusions: This study shows that a high intake of menaquinones and high vitamin K status are associated with a lower occurrence of MetS.