The intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with other hepatotoxins is an experimental model for inducing systemic and hepatic inflammation in rodents applied worldwide. The endotoxin is recognized by the LPS-binding protein. This complex binds together with the lymphocyte antigen 96 (MD2) and the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 to members of the toll-like receptor family. The activated receptor complex in turn transduces signals to well characterized intracellular cascades that result in a multifaceted network of intracellular responses ending in inflammation. The most prominent among these is the activation of the NF-κB pathway and the production of a multitude of inflammatory cytokines. Although the application of LPS is in general easy to perform, unintended variations in preparation of the injection solution or in handling of the animals might affect the reproducibility or the outcome of a specific experiment. Here, we present a well-standardized protocol that allows for an induction of highly reproducible acute hepatic inflammation in mice. Furthermore, examples of appropriate readouts for the resulting inflammatory response are given.
Keywords: D-galactosamine; Lipocalin-2; SOP; hepatitis; inflammation.
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