Chromatin modifiers and histone modifications in bone formation, regeneration, and therapeutic intervention for bone-related disease

Bone. 2015 Dec;81:739-745. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.03.011. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Abstract

Post-translational modifications of chromatin such as DNA methylation and different types of histone acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation are well-appreciated epigenetic mechanisms that confer information to progeny cells during lineage commitment. These distinct epigenetic modifications have defined roles in bone, development, tissue regeneration, cell commitment and differentiation, as well as disease etiologies. In this review, we discuss the role of these chromatin modifications and the enzymes regulating these marks (methyltransferases, demethylases, acetyltransferases, and deacetylases) in progenitor cells, osteoblasts and bone-related cells. In addition, the clinical relevance of deregulated histone modifications and enzymes as well as current and potential therapeutic interventions targeting chromatin modifiers are addressed.

Keywords: Acetylation; Chromatin; Chromatin-modifiers; Epigenetics; Methylation; Osteogenic lineage cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Bone Development / genetics*
  • Bone Development / physiology*
  • Bone Diseases / genetics
  • Bone Diseases / metabolism
  • Bone Diseases / therapy*
  • Bone Regeneration / genetics
  • Bone Regeneration / physiology
  • Chromatin / genetics*
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Histone Code / genetics*
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational

Substances

  • Chromatin
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors