Bladder cancer (BCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. Most patients (70%) present with superficial tumors (stages Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ). However, 3 out of 10 patients present with muscle-invasive disease (T2-4) with a high risk of death from distant metastases. Moreover, roughly between 50% and 70% of superficial tumors do recur, and approximately 10% to 20% of them progress to muscle-invasive disease. However, BCa has a relatively low ratio of mortality versus incidence of new cases. In consequence, there is the danger of overdiagnosis and overtreatment.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Bladder cancer; Cystoscopy; Diagnosis; Imaging; Screening; Staging; Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
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