Aromatic-amino-acid-glyoxylate aminotransferase was highly purified from the mitochondrial fraction of livers from monkey and glucagon-injected rats. The two enzyme preparations showed physical and enzymic properties different from a kynurenine aminotransferase previously described. The two enzymes had nearly identical molecular weights (approximate 80 000), isoelectric points (pH 8.0) and pH optima (pH 8.0 - 8.5). However, a difference in substrate specificity was observed between the two enzymes. Both enzymes utilized glyoxylate, pyruvate, hydroxypyruvate and 2-oxo-4-methyl-thiobutyrate as effective amino acceptors. 2-Oxoglutarate was active for rat enzyme but not for monkey enzyme. With glyoxylate, amino donors were effective in the following order of activity; phenylalanine greater than histidine greater than tyrosine greater than tryptophan greater than 5-hydroxytrypotphan greater than kynurenine for the rat enzyme, and phenylalanine greater than kynurenine greater than histidine greater than tryptophan greater than 5-hydroxy-tryptophan for the monkey enzyme.