Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) on skeletal muscle protein synthetic and degradative signaling in piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Methods: Piglets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and the main effects were LPS challenge (0 or 100 units) and diets (0.62% Ala or 0.5% Ala-Gln). After treatment with either Ala or Ala-Gln for 10 d, piglets were injected twice with either saline or LPS on days 11 and 15.
Results: During days 11 to 15 (postchallenge), LPS challenge affected the growth performance of piglets. Ala-Gln supplementation tended to alleviate the reduction of the average daily weight gain (P = 0.071) and the average daily feed intake (P = 0.087) of the LPS-challenged piglets. LPS challenge increased the concentrations of cytokines in plasma (P < 0.05), however, Ala-Gln supplementation prevented the elevation of cortisol induced by LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Moreover, Ala-Gln supplementation increased the mRNA expressions of insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling and Akt (P < 0.05). Ala-Gln supplementation also increased the phosphorylation abundance of the mammalian target of rapamycin, eIF-4 E binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P < 0.05). Additionally, Ala-Gln supplementation down-regulated the mRNA abundances of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), muscle atrophy F-box, and muscle RING finger 1, which are associated with protein degradation induced by LPS challenge.
Conclusion: Ala-Gln supplementation had beneficial effects in improving protein synthesis signaling of skeletal muscle, and reversed the deleterious changes of signaling molecules in muscle atrophy mainly through down-regulation of Akt/FOXO and TLR4 signaling pathways induced by LPS challenge.
Keywords: Alanyl-glutamine; LPS; Piglet; Signaling pathway; Skeletal muscle.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.