Household smoking restrictions among urban residents in China: individual and regional influences

Int J Public Health. 2015 May;60(4):479-86. doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0672-0. Epub 2015 Apr 3.


Objectives: The present study examines individual and regional influences on household smoking restrictions (HSR) in China.

Methods: Participants were 16,866 urban residents, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. The sample was characterized in terms of the prevalence of complete HSRs. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine individual and environmental influences on HSR.

Results: Almost 22 % of respondents reported HSR. Both individual and regional-level restrictions on smoking in the workplace were associated with HSR. There was a negative association between individual household income and HSR, and positive associations between HSR awareness of secondhand smoking (SHS), and smoking in smoke-free public places, respectively.

Conclusions: This study revealed individual and regional influences on HSR in China. Findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in Chinese households should emphasize environmental smoking restrictions, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of SHS. This information should be considered in designing interventions to sustain and promote the adoption of HSR in Chinese and other populations.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Awareness
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environment
  • Family Characteristics*
  • Female
  • Health Education
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Public Facilities
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / prevention & control*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data*
  • Urban Population


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution