Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota underpin the development of health and longevity. However, our understanding of what influences the composition of this community of the longevous has not been adequately described. Therefore, illumina sequencing analysis was performed on the gut microbiota of centenarians (aged 100-108 years; RC) and younger elderlies (aged 85-99 years; RE) living in Bama County, Guangxi, China and the elderlies (aged 80-92 years; CE) living in Nanning City, Guangxi, China. In addition, their diet was monitored using a semiquantitative dietary questionary (FFQ 23). The results revealed the abundance of Roseburia and Escherichia was significantly greater, whereas that of Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, Coprococcus, Megamonas, Mitsuokella, Sutterella, and Akkermansia was significantly less in centenarians at the genus level. Both clustering analysis and UniFraq distance analysis showed structural segregation with age and diet among the three populations. Using partial least square discriminate analysis and redundancy analysis, we identified 33 and 34 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as key OTUs that were significantly associated with age and diet, respectively. Age-related OTUs were characterized as Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, and the former two were increased in the centenarians; diet-related OTUs were classified as Bacteroidales, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The former two were deceased, whereas the later one was increased, in the high-fiber diet. The age and high-fiber diet were concomitant with changes in the gut microbiota of centenarians, suggesting that age and high-fiber diet can establish a new structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may benefit the health of centenarians.
Keywords: age; centenarians; diet; gut microbiota; illumina sequencing.