Objective: We aimed to prospectively derive and validate a novel 1h-algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) for early rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction.
Methods: We performed a prospective multicenter diagnostic study enrolling 1811 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography, echocardiography, follow-up data, and serial measurements of hs-cTnT (but not hs-cTnI). The hs-cTnI 1h-algorithm, incorporating measurements performed at baseline and absolute changes within 1 hour, was derived in a randomly selected sample of 906 patients (derivation cohort), and then validated in the remaining 905 patients (validation cohort).
Results: Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 18% of patients. After applying the hs-cTnI 1h-algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 50.5% of patients could be classified as "rule-out," 19% as "rule-in," 30.5% as "observe." In the validation cohort, the negative predictive value for acute myocardial infarction in the "rule-out" zone was 99.6% (95% confidence interval, 98.4%-100%), and the positive predictive value for acute myocardial infarction in the "rule-in" zone was 73.9% (95% confidence interval, 66.7%-80.2%). Negative predictive value of the 1h-algorithm was higher compared with the classical dichotomous interpretation of hs-cTnI and to the standard of care combining hs-cTnI with the electrocardiogram (both P < .001). Positive predictive value also was higher compared with the standard of care (P < .001).
Conclusion: Using a simple algorithm incorporating baseline hs-cTnI values and the absolute change within the first hour allows safe rule-out as well as accurate rule-in of acute myocardial infarction in 70% of patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00470587.
Keywords: Accurate rule-in; Acute myocardial infarction; Safe rule-out; hs-cTn.
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